Natural Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi in a Dog from Bahia State - Northeast of Brazil

Kaíque Pires Moura da Silva, Valquíria Tatiele da Silva Rodrigues, Gilmar José da Silva Ribeiro Junior, Ianei de Oliveira Carneiro, Deusdete Conceição Gomes Júnior, Layze Cilmara Alves da Silva Vieira

Abstract


Background: Chagas Disease (CD) is a parasitic anthropozoonosis caused by the Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), a protozoan transmitted by insects from the Reduviidae family. Several species of wild and domestic animals, humans included, are susceptible, developing acute clinical signals (myocarditis and cardiac arrhythmias) or chronic signals (drop on the performance and syncope) of the disease. In Brazil, the disease in dogs shows variable indexes of occurrence. The present paper describes the natural infection by T. cruzi in a canine living in the city of Barra, in the state of Bahia, Brazil, a region classified as high risk of vulnerability for the CD in the northeast of Brazil.

Case: A 9-year-old male dog, non-specific breed, was referred to the clinic the Veterinary Clinic for Small Animals, at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital), at the Federal University of the West of Bahia. Its owner reported the presence of bloody secretion in the penile region. During the physical exam it was possible to observe an increase in the volume of the penis base. All of the animal’s physiological parameters were within normal levels. Blood samples and cytological laminas from the lesioned area were collected and sent to the Laboratory of Veterinary Clinical Pathology in the same institution. The cytological exam showed monomorphic population of great round cells with a round nucleus, condensed chromatin and one to two prominent nucleolus, abundant and slightly basophilic cytoplasm, with multiple stippled vacuoles, thus confirming a Transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) case. With the blood exam one observed a thrombocytopenia, neutrophilia with a deviation on the left and the presence of a trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma sp. in the blood smears. A complete blood sample was sent to the Laboratory of Pathology and Molecular Biology from the Fiocruz-BA (Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in the State of Bahia), being identified by the PCR technique, T. cruzi.

Discussion: During the complete blood count, specifically using the blood smear, the microscopic visualization of the trypomastigote form of the Trypanosoma sp., a hemoparasite of filiform aspect, with undulating membrane over the whole body and free flagellum, confirming a case of trypanosomiasis. Such diagnostics had not been considered up to this moment, as the animal did not present any clinic symptomatology that indicated the pathological condition. The high levels of parasitemia presented by the animal, confirmed by the presence of the protozoan in the blood smear, probably indicate the acute phase of the infection, period in which the multiplication and development of the agent is higher, consequently allowing the visualization of the hemoparasite in the lamina. Although the TVT had proved to be the main derogatory factor of sanity and wellbeing of the animal, one calls the attention in this case for the trypanosomiasis, a zoonosis that causes great risk to the sole health, highlighting that the canine species is taken as an important reservoir of T. cruzi, relevant for the maintenance and interaction among the domestic and wild cycles of the Chagas Disease. This is the first report of a canine naturally infected by T. cruzi in the west Region of the State of Bahia. It is, thus, important to emphasize its significance once dogs can be reservoirs of the protozoan, acting in their life cycle and epidemiological chain of the Chagas Disease, enabling the infection of triatomines and humans. Future studies should be done with the purpose of determining the predominance of the agent in the region of the city of Barra, in the State of Bahia.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Britto C., Silveira C., Cardoso M.A., Marques P., Luquetti A., Macêdo V. & Fernandes O. 2001. Parasite persistence in treated chagasic patients revealed by xenodiagnosis and polymerase chain reaction. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. 96(6): 823-826.

Bonilla M.C., Castro-Vásquez R.M., Herrero-Acosta M.V., Urbina-Villalobos A. & Dolz G. 2019. Canine trypanosomiasis in an endemic Costa Rican community: Demonstration of the active infection cycle. Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports. 17: 100307. [Available at: ].

Carneiro M.E. 2017. Protozoário Flagelados. In: Monteiro S.G. (Ed). Parasitologia na Medicina Veterinária. 2.ed. Rio de Janeiro: Roca, pp.133-1441.

Crisante G., Rojas A., Teixeira M.M.G. & Añez N. 2006. Infected dogs as a risk factor in the transmission of human Trypanosoma cruzi infection in western Venezuela. Acta Tropica. 98(3): 247-254.

De Sá M.A.R, Ruschel M.L., De Jesus K.W.A., Santos P.O.M. & Rocha L.B. 2015. Infecção Canina por Trypanosoma sp. em Sergipe, Brasil. Revista Enciclopédia Biosfera: Centro Científico Conhecer. 11(21): 1-10.

Desquesnes M., Dargantes A., Lai D.H., Lun Z.R., Holzmuller P. & Jittapalapong S. 2013. Trypanosoma evansi and surra: a review and perspectives on transmission, epidemiology and control, impact, and zoonotic aspects. BioMed Research International. 2013: 321237. [Available at: ].

Elmayan A., Tu W., Duhon B., Marx P., Wolfson W., Balsamo G., Herrera C. & Dumonteil E. 2019. High prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in shelter dogs from Southern Louisiana, USA. Parasites Vectors. 12: 322. [Available at: ].

Enriquez G.F, Cardeal M.V., Orozco M.M., Schijman A.G. & Gürtler R.E. 2013. Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in naturally infected dogs and cats using serological, parasitological and molecular methods. Acta Tropica. 126(3): 211-217.

Ferreira M.A.Q.B., Teixeira M.N., Teixeira C.C.D., Paiva B.H.A., Silva V.C.L., Fukahori F.L.P, Rêgo M.S.A, Dias M.B.M.C. & Lima E.R. 2017. Aspectos clínicos, hematológicos, bioquímicos e citopatológicos do tumor venéreo transmissível em cães tratados com sulfato de vincristina. Medicina Veterinária. 11(1): 8-17.

Filgueira K.D., Peixoto G.C.X., Fonseca Z.A.A.S. & De Paiva A.L. C. 2013. Tumor venéreo transmissível canino com múltiplas localizações extragenitais. Acta Scientiae Veterinariae. 41(Suppl 1): 1-6.

Fiocruz (Portal da Doença de Chagas). Resposta Imune (Doença de Chagas). Available at: http://chagas.fiocruz.br/resposta-imune/. [Accessed online in April 2020].

Landi U.N., Borges T.B., Quessada A.M., Borges J.L., De Oliveira D. H., Zaniolo M.M., Sala P.L. & Ribeiro R.C.L. 2014. Obstrução uretral aguda causada por tumor venéreo transmissível em um cão. Acta Scientiae Veterinariae. 45(Suppl 1): 212.

Laurino F. 2009. Alterações hematológicas em cães e gatos sob estresse. 18f. São Paulo. Monografia (Bacharelado em Medicina Veterinária) - Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual Paulista.

Lucheis S.B. 2014. Tripanossomíases em rebanhos bovinos. Pesquisa e Tecnologia. 11(2): 1-4.

Mesa-Arciniegas P., Parra-Henao G., Carrión-Bonifacio Á., Casas-Cruz A., Patiño-Cuellar A., Díaz-Rodríguez K., Garzón-Jiménez S., Almansa-Manrique J., Bernal-Rosas Y., Hernández-Lamus C., Pedraza-Toscano A. & Torres-García O. 2018. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in naturally infected dogs from an endemic region of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports. 14: 212-216.

Mendes R.S., Santana V.L., Jansen A.N., Xavier S.C.C.,Vidal I.F., Rotondano T.E.F. & Souza A.P. 2013. Aspectos epidemiológicos da Doença de Chagas canina no semiárido Paraibano. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 33(12):1459-1465.

Ministério da Saúde do Brasil. 2019. Doença de Chagas Aguda e distribuição espacial dos triatomíneos de importância epidemiológica, Brasil 2012 a 2016. Boletim Epidemiológico. 50(2): 1-10.

Neto-Araújo V.T., Honorato N.R.M., Santana R.O., Barbosa-Silva A.N., Guedes P.M.M., Chiari E., Galvão L.M.C. & Da Câmara A.C.J. 2019. Trypanosoma cruzi circulating among dogs and triatomines in the endemic countryside of the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Acta Tropica. 200: 105067. [Available at: ].

Pagliarone A.C. & Sforcin J.M. 2009. Estresse: revisão sobre seus efeitos no sistema imunológico. Biosaúde. 11(1): 57-90.

Reiche E.M.V., Nunes S.O.V. & Morimoto H.K. 2005. Disfunções no Sistema Imune Induzidas pelo Estresse e Depressão: Implicações no Desenvolvimento e Progressão do Câncer. Revista Brasileira de Oncologia Clínica. 1(5): 19-28.

Ribeiro Junior G., Gurgel-Gonçalves R., Reis R.B., Santos C.G.S., Amorim A., Andrade S.G. & Reis M.G. 2015. Frequent House Invasion of Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Triatomines in Suburban Area of Brazil. Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases. 9(4): 1-10.

Santana V.L., Souza A.P., Lima D.A.S.D., Araújo A.L., Justiniano S.V., Dantas R.P., Guedes P.M.M. & Melo M.A. 2012. Caracterização clínica e laboratorial de cães naturalmente infectados com Trypanosoma cruzi no semiárido nordestino. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 32(6): 536-541.

Secretaria de Saúde do Estado da Bahia (SESAB). 2018. Boletim epidemiológico da doença de Chagas. Available at: http://www.saude.ba.gov.br/agravo/doenca-de-chagas/. [Accessed online in August 2019].

Secretaria de Saúde do Estado da Bahia (SESAB). 2019. Boletim epidemiológico da doença de Chagas. Available at: http://www.saude.ba.gov.br/agravo/doenca-de-chagas/. [Accessed online in August 2019].

Silva P.B. & Fernandes J.I. 2013. Aspectos Clínicos Epidemiológicos da Infecção por Trypanosoma cruzi em Cães Naturalmente Infectados no Município de São Domingos do Capim Pará. In: Resumos XXIV Seminário de Iniciação Científica da UFPA (Belém, Brasil). pp.1.

Snowden K.F. & Kjos S.A. 2015. Tripanossomíase. In: Greene C.E (Ed). Doenças Infecciosas em Cães e Gatos. 4.ed. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan, pp. 1581-1607.

Souza A.I. 2007. Estudo Clínico da Infecção Natural por Trypanosoma cruzi em Cães Residentes em uma Área Rural de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. 78f. São Paulo. Dissertação (Mestrado em Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias) - Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Agrária e Veterinárida, Universidade Estadual Paulista.

Souza A.I., Oliveira T.M.F. S., Machado R.Z. & Camacho A.A. 2009. Soroprevalência da infecção por Trypanosoma cruzi em cães de uma área rural do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 29(2): 150-152.

Veloso J.F., Oliveira T.N.A., Andrade L.P., Silva F.L., Sampaio K.M.O.R., Michel A.F.R.M., De Lavor M.S.L. & Carlos R.S.A. 2018. Three Cases of Exclusively Extragenital Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumor (cTVT). Acta Scientiae Veterinariae. 46(Suppl 1): 295.

Weiser G. 2015. Interpretação da resposta leucocitária na doença In: Thrall M.A., Weiser G., Allison R.W. & Campbell T.W. (Eds). Hematologia e Bioquímica Clínica Veterinária. 2.ed. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan, pp.276-305.

World Health Organization (WHO). 2015. Chagas Disease in Latin America: An Epidemiological Update Based on 2010 Estimates. Weekly Epidemiological Record: World Health Organization, Geneva. 90(6): 33-44. Available at: https://www.who.int/wer/2015/wer9006/en/. [Accessed online in February 2020].

World Health Organization (WHO). 2020 Chagas disease (also known as American trypanosomiasis). Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ chagas-disease-(american-trypanosomiasis). [Accessed online in February 2020].




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.103250

Copyright (c) 2020 Layze Cilmara Alves da Silva Vieira

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.