Influence of the Bovine Leukemia Virus on the Immunological Activity by the Neutrophilic Function

Vinícius Bigolin Narciso, Silvana Giacomini Collet, Lilian Kolling Girardini, Fernando Nogueira Souza, Alcione Santa Catarina, Alice Maria Melville Paiva Della Libera, Carla Sabedot, Thais Regina Brunetto, Marla Schneider, Maiara Garcia Blagitz

Abstract


Background: Bovine leukemia virus (VLB) is an oncogenic deltaretrovirus associated with the development of persistent lymphocytosis (LP) and lymphosarcomas in cattle. LP is characterized by chronic elevation of the number of circulating lymphocytes, in the case of B lymphocytes. Several studies have described functional changes in various leukocyte populations in both blood and milk in VLB-infected animals. The impact of some chronic diseases of low lethality is aggravated by the emergence of comorbidities.The objective of the present study was to evaluate the oxidative metabolism and neutrophil phagocytosis of bovines of the Holtein breed naturally infected with the bovine leukemia virus (VLB).

Materials, Methods & Results: In this study, 20 cows were divided into three groups: (NG) seven non-seroreagent animals for VLB and without hematological alterations; (GAL) eight seroreagent animals for VLB and without hematological alterations; and (GLP) five seroreagent animals for VLB with persistent lymphocytosis (LP). The oxidative metabolism of neutrophils was determined by the tetrazolium nitroblast reduction test stimulated or not with Zymosan particles. The percentage of neutrophils that phagocytosed Zymosan particle (s) was also evaluated. The data were initially evaluated for normality and homoscedasticity by the Shapiro-Wilk test. Then the ANOVA test followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test was applied for the comparison between the NG, GAL and GLP animals. Comparison between the NG animals and the seroreagent animals for the VLB (GVLB) was also performed through the unpaired Student's t-test. The value of P < 0.05 was considered significant. No significant differences were observed in oxidative neutrophil metabolism in stimulated and non-stimulated samples with Zymosan particles nor in the percentage of neutrophils that phagocytosed Zymosan particle (s) among the three experimental groups. However, as no differences were observed between the seroreagent animals for VLB with and without LP, we chose to divide the animals into only two experimental, non-seroreagent and seroreagent groups for VLB. Thus, when non-seroreagent animals for the VLB were compared with the seroreagent animals for the VLB, which corresponds to the GAL and GLP animals, a significant difference was observed in relation to the oxidative metabolism by neutrophils stimulated with Zymosan particles.

Discussion: Some viral diseases are often associated with increased susceptibility to new infections and several studies have evaluated the role of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in VLB infection, but few studies have investigated neutrophil function. Some authors, when evaluating phagocytic capacity and oxidative metabolism, respectively, of blood leukocytes from VLB-infected animals, observed that VLB-infected animals displaying LP had lower phagocytic capacity and lower production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Some studies have shown that oxygen consumption by neutrophils was higher in experimentally infected sheep by VLB after 15 weeks of challenge, but this species is not a natural host of the virus, since transmission does not occur between sheep and cattle and the pathogenesis of infection by VLB is more acute in sheep, a result of the lower latency period for LP development. Other authors, when evaluating the interference of VLB in milk leukocytes, concluded that VLB-infected animals show lower intensity of intracellular ROS production by flow cytometry in VLB-infected animals, especially animals expressing LP, despite the fact that percentage of milk neutrophils that produced ROS did not differ between groups. It can be concluded that VLB interferes in neutrophilic function with possible implications for the health of VLB-infected animals and may favor secondary infections.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Azedo M.R., Massoco C.O., Blagitz M.G., Sanches B.G.S., Souza F.N., Batista C.F., Sakai M., SÁ-Rocha L.C., Kfoury Junior J.R., Stricagnolo C.R., Benesi F.J. & Della Libera A.M.M.P. 2008. Influência da Leucose Enzoótica Bovina na função fagocítica de leucócitos circulantes em animais manifestando linfocitose persistente. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research Animal Science. 45(5): 390-397.

Azedo M.R., Blagitz M.G., Souza F.N., Benesi F.J. & Della Libera A.M.M.P. 2011. Avaliação funcional de monócitos de bovinos naturalmente infectados pelo vírus da leucose bovina. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia. 63(5): 1131-1140.

Azedo M.R., Massoco C.O., Blagitz M.G., Souza F.N., Pogliani F.C., Benesi F.J. & Della Libera A.M.M.P. 2012. Metabolismo oxidativo de leucócitos em animais infectados pelo Vírus da Leucemia Bovina. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research. 49: 93-101.

Della Libera A.M.M.P., Blagitz M.G., Batista C.F., Latorre A.O., Stricagnolo C.R. & Souza F.N. 2012. Quantificationof B cells and T lymphocytes subsets in bovine leucemia virus infected dairy cows. Semina: Ciências Agrárias. 33: 1487-1494.

Della Libera A.M.M.P., Souza F.N., Batista C.F., Santos B.P., Azevedo L.F.F., Sanchez E.M.R., Diniz S.A., Silva M.X., Haddad J.P. & Blagitz M.G. 2015. Effects of bovine leukemia virus infection on milk neutrophil function and the milk lymphocyte profile. Veterinary Research. 46(2): DOI: 10.1186/s13567-014-0125-4

Divers T.J. & Peek S.F. 2008. Rebhun’s Disease of Dairy Cattle. 2nd edn. St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier, 686p.

Ferronatto J.A., Blagitz M.G., Souza F.N., Batista C.F., Azevedo L.F.F. & Della Libera A.M.M.P. 2017. Avaliaçãof uncional de neutrófilos sanguíneos em vacas leiteiras infectadas pelo vírus da leucemia bovina. In: XII Congresso Brasileiro de Buiatria (Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil). Revista Acadêmica Ciência Animal. 15(Supl 2): 669-670.

Florins A., Gillet N., Asquith B., Boxus M., Burtheau C., Twizere J.C., Urbain P., Vandermeers F., Debacq C., Sanhez-Alcaraz M.T., Schwartz-Cornil I., Kerkhofs P., Jean G., ThéwisA., Hay J., Mortreux F., Wattel E., Reichert M., Burny A., Kettman R., Bangham C. & Willems L. 2007. Cell dynamics and imuune response to BLV infection: a unifying model. Frontiers in Bioscience. 12: 1520-1531.

Frie M.C. & Coussens P.M. 2015. Bovine leukemia virus: a major silent threat to proper immune response. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 163: 103-114.

Gillet N., Florins A., Boxus M., Burteau C., Nigro A., VandermeersF., Balon H., Bouzar A. B., Defoiche J., Burny A., Reichert M., Kettman R. & Willems L. 2007. Mechanisms of leukomogenesis induced by bovine leukemia virus: prospects for novel anti-retroviral therapies in human. Retrovirology. 4(18): doi: 10.1186/1742-4690-4-18

Gucchait A., Joardar N., Parida P.K., Roy P., Mukherjee N., Dutta A., Yesuvadian R., SinhaBabu S.P., Jana K. & Misra A.K. 2018. Development of novel anti-filarial agents using carbamo (dithioperoxo) thioate derivatives. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 143: 598-610.

Madureira K.M., Baldacim V.A.P., Costa J.F.R., Silva C.P.C., Arcaro J.R.P., Miranda M.S., Sousa R.S., Fagliari J.J. & Gomes V. 2017. Resposta imunocelular em vacas Holandesas soropositivas para o vírus da Leucose Bovina (BLV) durante o período de transição. In: XII Congresso Brasileiro de Buiatria (Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil). Revista Acadêmica Ciência Animal. 15 (Supl 2): 33-34.

Park B.H. & Good R.A. 1970. NBT test stimulated. Lancet. 269(7673): 616.

Souza F.N., Latorre A.O., Carniceiro B.D., Sakai M., Kieling K., Blagitz M.G. & Della Libera A.M.M.P. 2011. Proliferação de linfócitos e apopotose de células CD5+ de bovinos infectados pelo vírus da Leucose Enzoótica Bovina. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia. 63: 1124-1130.

Souza F.N., Monteiro A.M., Santos P.R., Sanchez E.M.R., Blagitz M.G., Latorre A.O., Figueiredo Neto A.M., Gidlund M. & Della Libera A.M.M.P. 2011. Antioxidant status and biomarkers of oxidative stress in bovine leukemia virus-infected dairy cows. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 143: 162-166.

Souza F.N., Blagitz M.G., Latorre A.O., Ramos Sanchez E.M., Batista C.F., Weigel R.A., Rennó F.P., Sucupira M.C.A. & Della Libera A.M.M.P. 2012. Intracellular reactive oxygen production by polymorphonuclear leukocytes in bovine leukemia virus-infected dairy cows. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. 74: 221-225.

Thurmond M.C., Carter R.L., Picanso J.P. & Stralka K. 1990. Upper-normal prediction limits of lymphocyte count for cattle not infected with bovine leukemia virus. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 51: 466-470.

Walker A.F., Lumsden J.H. & StirtzingerT. 1987. Neutrophil function in sheep experimentally infected with bovine leukemia virus. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 14: 67-76.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.102520

Copyright (c) 2020 Vinícius Bigolin Narciso, Silvana Giacomini Collet, Lilian Kolling Girardini, Fernando Nogueira Souza, Alcione Santa Catarina, Alice Maria Melville Paiva Della Libera, Carla Sabedot, Thais Regina Brunetto, Marla Schneider, Maiara Garcia Blagitz

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.