Morphological Features of the Acupuncture Points of Bladder Meridian in the Giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla)

Gustavo de Calasans Marques, Bruno Cesar Schimming

Abstract


Background: The acupuncture points are considered a point in the skin of sensitivity to stimulation. The acupuncture meridians represent the communication between acupuncture points and internal organs. The giant anteater (Mirmecophaga tridactyla) is routinely attended in veterinary centers, and is pivotal to know its morphology and therapies such as acupuncture that, probably, can be used in medical practice. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological substrate in regions that correspond to the transposition of acupuncture points of the Bladder Meridian using radiography, ultrasonography, electrical impedance and histology in the giant anteater.

Material, Methods & Results: Seven giant anteaters (six males and one female) were used. The animals were from the Center of Medicine and Research in Wild Animals (CEMPAS), School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo. The acupoints of Bladder Meridian evaluated were Bladder 11 (B-11), Bladder 18 (B-18), Bladder 23 (B-23), Bladder 25 (B-25), and Bladder 28 (B-28). The locations of the acupoints were transposed based on the location of these acupuncture points in dogs. Four animals were live and were used for radiographic, ultrasonographic, and electrical impedance analysis. Three animals were died and the fragments of this acupoints were destined to histological routine with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and Masson’s Trichrome stains. The giant anteaters studied had fifteen thoracic vertebrae, three lumbar vertebrae, and five sacral vertebrae fused in a single bone. The acupuncture points were characterized by presence of abundant connective tissue at the superficial and intermuscular level, muscular fascia, and many neurovascular bundles in the dermal layer. These bundles consisted of nerves, arteries and veins of various calibers. The spaces between the nerves and blood vessels were filled by loose connective tissue containing adipose cells, capillaries, and sweat glands.

Discussion: The network of acupuncture points can be seen as a representation of a network formed by interstitial connective tissue. This hypothesis is supported by ultrasound imaging that demonstrated plans for cleavage of connective tissue at acupuncture points in normal humans. It seems that the anatomical relationship of acupoints and meridians with connective tissue planes is relevant to the mechanism of action of acupuncture and suggests an important integrative role for interstitial connective tissue. The presence of connective tissue was observed in the transposition areas studied in the giant anteater using ultrasound. The main histological structures found in the transposition regions of the acupoints in the giant anteater were the nerve and connective tissue, similar to other studies, who claimed that the nerve is the main histological component of an acupoint. Therefore, there are reports suggesting that the network of acupoints and meridians can be seen as a representation of a network formed by interstitial connective tissue and that this relationship is important for the therapeutic mechanism of acupuncture. Based on the results of this study, it is possible to infer that the studied regions present a morphological substrate that is consistent with the characteristics of an acupuncture point. Thus, it is suggested that there are probably acupuncture points in these regions in the giant anteater, which makes possible the use of this alternative medical therapy for the treatment of these animals.


Full Text:

PDF

References


Ahn A.C., Wu J., Badger G.J., Hammerschlag R. & Langevin H.M. 2005. Electrical impedance along connective tissue planes associated with acupuncture meridians. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 5: 10. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-5-10

Babicsak V.R., Doiche D.P., Mamprim M.J., Vulcano L.C., Zardo K.M., Santos D.R.D. & Teixeira C.R. 2012. Mielotomografia e reconstrução tridimensional em Myrmecophaga tridactyla: compressão medular por fratura compressiva vertebral–Relato de caso. Revista de Educação Continuada em Medicina Veterinária e Zooteccnia CRMV-SP. 10: 44-45.

Cruz V.S., Cardoso J.R., Araújo L.B.M., Souza P.R., Borges N.C. & Araújo E.G. 2014. Aspectos anatômicos do plexo lombossacral de Myrmecophaga tridactyla (Linnaeus, 1758). Biosciences Journal. 30: 235-244.

Egerbacher M. 2006. Anatomia e histologia de pontos de acupuntura selecionados de bovinos e caninos. In: Schoen A.M. (Ed). Acupuntura veterinária. Da arte antiga à medicina moderna. 2.ed. São Paulo: Roca, pp.21-23.

Hwang Y.C. & Egerbacher M. 2006. Anatomia e classificação dos acupontos. In: Schoen A.M. (Ed). Acupuntura veterinária. Da arte antiga à medicina moderna. 2.ed. São Paulo: Roca, pp.17-23.

Jenkins J.R. 1970. Anatomy and function of expanded ribs in certain edentates and primates. Journal of Mammalogy. 51: 288–301. https://doi.org/10.2307/1378479

Jeune S., Henneman K. & May K. 2016. Acupuncture and equine rehabilitation. Veterinary Clinics: Equine Practice. 32: 73-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cveq.2015.12.004

Jones D.M., Smallwood R.H., Hose D.R., Brown B.H. & Walker D.C. 2003. Modelling of epithelial tissue impedance measured using three different designs of probe. Physiological Measurement. 24: 605-623. https://doi.org/10.1088/0967-3334/24/2/369

Koski M.A. 2011. Acupuncture for zoological companion animals. Veterinary Clinics: Exotic Animal Practice. 14: 141-154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvex.2010.09.010

Langevin H.M. & Yandow J.A. 2002. Relationship of acupuncture points and meridians to connective tissue planes. Anatomical Record. 269: 257-265. https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.10185

Langevin H.M., Churchill D.L. & Cipolla M.J. 2001. Mechanical signaling through connective tissue: a mechanism for the therapeutic effect of acupuncture. FASEB Journal. 15: 2275-2282. https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.01-0015hyp

Langevin H.M., Churchill D.L., Wu J., Badger G.J., Yandow J.A., Fox J.R. & Krag M.H. 2002. Evidence of connective tissue involvement in acupuncture. FASEB Journal. 16: 872-874. https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.01-0925fje

Macedo L.S.M., Azevedo R.B. & Pinto F. 2010. Área de vida, uso do habitat e padrão de atividade do tamanduá-bandeira na savana de Boa Vista, Roraima. In: Barbosa R.I. & Melo V.F. (Eds). Roraima: Homem, Ambiente e Ecologia. Boa Vista: FEMACT, pp.585-602.

Miranda F. 2006. Cingulata (Tatus) e Pilosa (Preguiças e Tamanduás). In: Cubas Z.S., Silva J.C.R. & Catão-Dias J.L. (Eds). Tratado de Animais Selvagens. 2.ed. São Paulo: Roca, pp.710-721.

Pomeranz B. 1998. Scientific basis of acupuncture. In: Stux G. & Pomeranz B. (Eds). Basis of acupuncture. 4.ed. Berlin: Springer, pp.6-47.

Roasted P. 1998. The use of acupuncture in dentistry: a review of the scientific validity of published papers. Oral diseases. 4: 100–104. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1601-0825.1998.tb00265x

Schoen A.M. 2006. Acupuntura Veterinária. Da arte antiga à medicina moderna. São Paulo: Roca, pp.15-80.

Souza P.R., Cardoso J.R., Araújo L.B.M., Moreira P.C., Cruz V.S. & Araújo E.G. 2014. Gross anatomy of the brachial plexus in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla). Anatomia Histolologia Embryologia. 43: 341-345. https://doi.org/10.1111/ahe.12080

Steiss J.E. 2006. Base neurofisiológica da acupuntura. In: Schoen A.M. (Ed). Acupuntura veterinária. 2.ed. São Paulo: Roca, p.24.

Stux G., Berman B. & Pomeranz B. 2012. Basics of Acupuncture. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. pp.7-55.

Swartz M.A., Tschumperlin D.J., Kamm R.D. & Drazen J.M. 2001. Mechanical stress is communicated between diferente cell types to elicit matrix remodeling. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences USA. 98: 6180-6185. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.111133298

Taffarel M.O. & Freitas P.M.C. 2009. Acupuntura e analgesia: aplicações clínicas e principais acupontos. Ciência Rural. 39: 2665–2672.

Urano K. & Ogasawara S. 1978. A fundamental study on acupuncture point phenomena of dog body. Kitasato Archives of Experimental Medicine. 51: 95-109.

Xie H. & Preast V. 2011. Os 12 canais regulars. In: Xie H. & Preast V. (Eds). Acupuntura Veterinária Xie. São Paulo: MedVet, p.5-13.

Yiyun Z. 2008. Avaliação das impedâncias em pontos de acupuntura. 39f. Botucatu, SP. Trabalho de conclusão de curso. Universidade Estadual Paulista UNESP.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.102379

Copyright (c) 2020 Gustavo de Calasans Marques, Bruno Cesar Schimming

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.