Foals Developmental Orthopedic Disease Associated with Metabolic and Biometric Characterization of Pregnant Overweight Crioulo Mares

Anibal Janczak Torres, Carlos Eduardo Wayne Nogueira, Alice Correa, Carolina Litchina Brasil, Ilusca Sampaio Finger, Josiane Feijó, Mariana Andrade Mousquer, Grasiela De Bastiani, Adriana Pires Neves

Abstract


Background: Musculoskeletal changes in growing foals can be linked to metabolic disorders which affect the cartilage metabolism associated of obesity during the late gestation of the mares, negatively affecting the athletic performance of the otherwise prospective foals. High basal insulin levels can be associated with increased weight and obesity of the mares, altering the supply of the glucose to the fetus and the production of IGF-1, which plays an important role in the endochondral cartilage metabolism. The present study aims to describe the association of the articular and the physeal possible lesions and the IGF-1 levels of the foals to metabolic and biometric measurements alterations of the overweight Crioulo mares in the late gestation.

Materials, Methods & Results: A prospective and observational cohort study was conducted using the foals and the overweight mares at field conditions. Twenty-eight foals and their overweight mothers were utilized. The foals’ biometric and metabolic features as weight and height; glucose, total cholesterol, cholesterol HDL, triglycerides, basal insulin, leptin, glucose, total T4 and IGF-1 were analyzed, from the birth until the weaning period around sixth month of life of it. All the foals, at the weaning period, were submitted to the radiograph examination of the tarsal joints and the metacarpal-phalangeal joints to evaluate signs of lesions and the possible distal metacarpal physeal changes, respectively. The mares’ biometric and metabolic features as weight, height and fat tail-head deposition; basal insulin, leptin, glucose, total cholesterol, cholesterol HDL and triglycerides were analyzed at the final period of gestation. The basal insulin levels of the foals at the second, fourth and sixth month of life were 9.87 + 1.82 µUI/mL, 9.13 + 1.94 µUI/mL, 9.39 + 2.54 µUI/mL. The IGF-1 levels of the foals at the second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth month of life were 290.27 + 79.72 ng/mL; 180.77 + 66.22 ng/mL; 151.79 + 46.64 ng/mL; 110.81 + 33.13 ng/mL and 89.59 + 14.00 ng/mL. Foals presented osteoarthritis (92.85%) of the distal tarsal joints and 50% of it presented physitis of the distal metacarpal epiphyseal plate. The weight and the basal insulin levels of the mares at the last three months of gestation were 501.80 + 6.4 kg, 511.76 + 8.0 kg, 533.23 + 8.2 kg and 11.7 + 2.1 µUI/mL, 9.8 + 1.1 µUI/mL, 13.7 + 1.6 µUI/mL, respectively.

Discussion: In the present study, from the second to the sixth month of the period life, the foals showed IGF-1 levels of 290 to 89 ng/mL, and demonstrated, at 6-month-old, a prevalence of 92.85% of distal tarsus lesions and 50% of physitis of the distal metacarpal epiphyseal plate. In association, the overweight mares showed an increase of the insulin basal levels when nearing parturition. The occurrence of physitis in 50% of the 6-month-old foals in the present study demonstrate that the metabolic changes are involved in this process and the IGF-1 levels were observed to be lower than in healthy foals of other breeds. The lower IGF-1 levels during the developmental period of the foals are associated with a decrease of bone density and mass, musculoskeletal atrophy and osteoarthritis. In the present study, the decreasing curve of IGF-1 levels (P < 0.05) of the foals, from the second to sixth month of life, is similar to others researches with foals from other breeds from 0 to 7 months of life. In previous researches with Crioulo horses, it was observed that foals aged less than 18 months had up to 100% of prevalence of articular tarsus lesions. This suggest that the tarsus lesions observed in 92.85% of the 6-month-old foals in the present study, could not heal and that lesions should remain in the foals to adulthood.


Full Text:

PDF

References


AAEP. LAMENESS EXAMS: Evaluating the Lame Horse. Available at: . [Accessed online in January 2019].

Abo El-Maaty A.M., Mohamed A.H., Abu-Aita N.A. & Morgan H.M. 2017. Markers for Predicting Overweight or Obesity of Broodmares. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. 56: 9-18.

Abreu H. C., De La Corte F.D., Brass K.E., Pompermayer E., Da Luz T.R.R. & Gasperi D. 2011. Claudicação em cavalos Crioulos atletas. Ciência Rural. 41(12): 2114-2119.

Aiex L.F. 2008. Birth Weight and growth of New Zealand Thoroughbred foals. 117p. Palmerston North, MWT. Thesis (Master of Veterinary Studies), Massey University.

Amaral L.A., Marchiori M., Moraes B.S., Finger I., dos Santos R.S. & Nogueira C.E.W. 2017. Relação entre adiposidade, perfil energético, proteínas inflamatórias e lesões osteoarticulares em equinos jovens sobre diferentes sistemas de criação. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 37(2): 115-120.

Baccarin R.Y.A., Pereira M.A., Roncati N.V., Furtado P.V., Oliveira C.A. & Hagen S.C.F. 2011. Identificação dos níveis séricos do fator de crescimento tipo insulina 1 em potros com osteocondrose. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 31(8): 677-682.

Böhme K., Conscience-Egli M., Tschan T., Winterhalter K.H. & Bruckner P. 1992. Induction of proliferation or hypertrophy of chondrocytes in serum-free culture: the role of insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin, or thyroxine. The Journal of Cell Biology. 116(4): 1035-1042.

Bramlage L.R. 2011. Physitis in the horse. Equine Veterinary Education. 23(11): 548-552.

Bryden W.L., Foote C.E., Cawdell-Smith A.J. & Anderson S.T. 2013. Insulin dynamics during equine pregnancy - Possible relationship to osteochondrosis in foals. Canberra: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, 35p.

Butler J.A., Colles C.M., Dyson S.J., Kold S.E. & Poulos K.W. 2011. Clinical Radiology of the Horse. 3rd edn. London: Blackwell Science Ltd, pp.220-225.

Cavinder Clay A., Vogelsang M.M., Gibbs P.G., Forrest D.W. & Schmitz D.G. 2007. Endocrine Profile Comparisons of Fat Versus Moderately Conditioned Mares Following Parturition. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. 27(2): 72-79.

De Bastiani G., De La Corte F.D., Brass K.E., Kommers G.D. & Denoix J.M. 2014. Association of Ultrasound and Anatomopathologic Findings of Equine Metacarpophalangeal Lesions. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. 34(10): 1218-1225.

De Bastiani G., De La Corte F.D., Brass K.E., Cantarelli C., Dau S., Kommers G.D., Da Silva T.M. & Azevedo M.S. 2018. Histochemistry of Equine Damaged Tendons, Ligaments and Articular Cartilage. Acta Scientiae Veterinariae. 46: 1-8.

Dobbs T.N. 2013. Glucose and insulin dynamics in mares and their foals. 232p. Brisbane, QLD. PhD Thesis. School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland.

Fortier L.A, Balkman C.E, Sandell L.J. & Nixon A.J. 2001. Insulin-like growth factor-I gene expression patterns during spontaneous repair of acute articular cartilage injury. Journal of Orthopedic Research. 19(4): 720-728.

Fortier L.A., Kornatowski M.A., Mohammed H.O., Jordan M.T., O'Cain L.C. & Stevens W.B. 2005. Age‐related changes in serum insulin‐like growth factor‐I, insulin‐like growth factor‐I binding protein‐3 and articular cartilage structure in Thoroughbred horses. Equine Veterinary Journal. 37(1): 37-42.

Frisbie D.D., Ghivizzani S.C., Robbins P.D., Evans C.H. & McIlwraith C.W. 2002. Treatment of experimental equine osteoarthritis by in vivo delivery of the equine interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene. Gene Therapy. 9(1): 12-20.

Gallio M., Azevedo M.S., Brass K.E., De La Corte F.D. & Lopes L.F.D. 2014. Prevalência de alterações ósseas no tarso de potros Crioulos de até vinte e seis meses de idade. Ciência Rural. 44(8): 1442-1447.

Gentry L.R., Thompson D.L. & Gentry G.T. 2004. The relationship between body condition score and ultrasonic fat measurements in mares of high versus low body condition. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. 24(5): 198-203.

George L.A., Staniar W.B., Treiber K.H., Harris P.A. & George R.J. 2009. Insulin sensitivity and glucose dynamics during pre-weaning foal development and in response to maternal diet composition. Domestic Animal Endocrinology. 37(1): 23-29.

Gregory J. 2012. Avaliação do desenvolvimento testicular em equinos da raça Crioula no período da peri-puberdade. 52f. Porto Alegre, RS. Dissertação (Mestrado em Medicina Animal) - Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina Animal - Equinos, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul.

Heyden V.L., Lejeune J-P., Caudron I., Detilleux J., Sandersen C., Chavatte P., Paris J., Deliège B. & Serteyn D. 2013. Association of breeding conditions with prevalence of osteochondrosis in foals. Veterinary Record. 172(3): 68.

Henneke D.R., Potter G.D. & Krieder J.L. 1983. Relationship between condition score, physical measurements and body fat percentage in mares. Equine Veterinary Journal. 15(4): 371-372.

Johnson R.J., Rivard C. & Lanaspa M.A. 2013. Fructokinase, Fructans, Intestinal Permeability, and Metabolic Syndrome: An Equine Connection? Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. 33(2): 120-126.

Lejeune J., Franck T., Gangl M., Scheider N., Michaux C., Deby-Dupont G. & Serteyn D. 2007. Plasma concentration of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in growing Ardenner horses suffering from juvenile digital degenerative osteoarthropathy. Veterinary Research Communication. 31: 185-195.

Long N.M., George L.A., Uthlaut A.B. Smith D.T., Nijland M.J., Nathanielsz P.W. & Ford S.P. 2010. Maternal obesity and increased nutrient intake before and during gestation in the ewe results in altered growth, adiposity, and glucose tolerance in adult offspring. Journal Animal Science. 88(11): 3546-3553.

Marchiori M.O., Kasinger S., Silva K.R., Souza L.S., Amaral L.A., Nogueira C.E.W. & Roll V.F.B. 2015. Medidas comparativas do padrão morfométrico e perfil energético de éguas Crioulas no terço final da gestação, com diferentes escores corporais. Arquivos Brasileiros de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia. 67(3): 707-715.

McIlwraith C.W. 2004. Developmental orthopedic disease: problems of limbs in young horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. 24(11): 475-479.

Orth M.W. 1999. The regulation of growth plate cartilage turnover. Journal of Animal Science. 77(2): 183-189.

Ousey J.C., Fowden A.L., Wilsher S. & Allen W.R. 2010. The effects of maternal health and body condition on the endocrine responses of neonatal foals. Equine Veterinary Journal. 40(7): 673-679.

Paz C.F.R., Paganela J.C., Santos C.A., Nogueira C.E.W. & Faleiros R.R. 2013. Relação entre obesidade, insulina plasmática e posicionamento da falange distal em equinos da raça Crioula. Arquivos Brasileiros de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia. 65(6): 1699-1705.

Peugnet P., Robles M., Wimel L., Tarrade A. & Chavatte-Palmer P. 2016. Management of the pregnant mare and long-term consequences on the offspring. Theriogenology. 86(1): 99-109.

Robert C., Valette J.P. & Denoix J.M. 2006. Correlation between routine radiographic findings and early racing career in French Trotters. Equine Veterinary Journal. 38(S36): 473-478.

Robles M., Nouveau E., Gautier C., Mendoza L., Dubois C. & Dahirel M. 2018. Maternal obesity increases insulin resistance, low-grade inflammation and osteochondrosis lesions in foals and yearlings until 18 months of age. Plos One. 13(1): 1-25.

Santschi E.M. 2008. Articular fetlock injuries in exercising. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice. 24(1): 117-132.

Satué K., Felipe M., Mota J. & Muñoz A. 2011. Factors influencing gestational length in mares: A review. Livestock Science. 136(2): 287-294.

Smith S., Marr C., Dunnett C. & Menzies‐Gow N. 2017. The effect of mare obesity and endocrine function on foal birth weight in Thoroughbreds. Equine Veterinary Journal. 49(4): 461-466.

Van Eps A.W. & Pollitt C.C. 2006. Equine laminitis induced with oligofructose. Equine Veterinary Journal. 38(3): 203-208.

Van Weeren P.R. 2006. Etiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of OC(D). Clinical Techniques in Equine Practice. 5(4): 248-258.

Winter G.H.Z., Rubin M.I.B., De La Corte F.D. & Silva C.A.M. 2007. Gestational Length and First Postpartum Ovulation of Criollo Mares on a Stud Farm in Southern Brazil. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. 27(12): 531-534.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22456/1679-9216.102015

Copyright (c) 2020 Anibal Janczak Torres, Carlos Eduardo Wayne Nogueira, Alice Correa, Carolina Litchina Brasil, Ilusca Sampaio Finger, Josiane Feijó, Mariana Andrade Mousquer, Grasiela De Bastiani, Adriana Pires Neves

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.